Wednesday, 26 September 2012

All of Earth's naturally-occurring gold is
within its core. The gold we mine from
the planet's crust was delivered by
Scientists have shown that the Earth's
surface became enriched with precious
metals by impacting meteorites.
The Earth's crust and mantle has
considerably more gold than expected
from favoured models of planetary
A study from the University of Bristol
looked at some of the oldest rocks on
Earth, demonstrating that gold was
delivered by meteorites long after their
Their results are published in Nature.
While the Earth was forming, iron sank
to the centre of the planet, forming the
Any precious metals in the planetary
mix would have gone with this iron
and concentrated in the core, leaving
the mantle devoid of elements such as
gold, platinum, and osmium.
But this is not what we observe. In
fact, the silicate mantle has up to 1,000
times more gold than anticipated.
Several reasons for this enrichment
were proposed in the past, including
delivery by meteorites, although until
now it has not been possible to prove.
By measuring isotopes in rocks that are
nearly four billion years old from
Greenland, the team has managed to
date the gold delivery, and to relate it
to an event known as the "terminal

Tuesday, 18 September 2012


This is a contraceptive that works like
the pill but with the advantage that
you don't have to remember to take
it every day.
What's the contraceptive patch?
It is a small, thin, beige, sticky skin
patch that contains the same
hormones as the pill - estrogen and
progestogen. These are similar to
the hormones women produce in
their ovaries.
How does it work?
The patch delivers a constant daily
dose of hormones into the
bloodstream through the skin. This
stops the ovaries from releasing an
egg (ovulation) each month. The
patch also:
Thickens the mucus in the cervix,
making it difficult for sperm to
reach an egg
Makes the lining of the womb
thinner so it's less likely to accept
a fertilised egg
How reliable is it?
Effectiveness depends on how
carefully it's used. The patch is more
than 99 per cent effective when used
according to instructions. This means
that, using this method, fewer than
one woman in 100 will get pregnant
in a year. It is less effective in women
weighing 90kg (14st) and over.
Myth: The patch is more reliable
than the pill
Fact: Not true - the effectiveness of
the patch is the same as the pill
Myth: It falls off easily
Fact: Not true - it's very sticky
How do you use it?
The patch is used for three weeks
out of every four. A new patch is
used each week.
The patch can be started up to and
including the fifth day of a period. If
used at this time it's effective straight
away. If started at any other time,
additional contraception has to be
used for seven days.
After 21 days you have a break of
seven days when you have a bleed.
This withdrawal bleed is usually
shorter and lighter than normal
You can use the patch on most
areas of the body as long as the skin
is clean, dry and not very hairy. You
should not put it on skin that is sore
or where it can be rubbed by tight
clothing. Don’t put it on your
You only need to remember to
replace the patch once a week
It doesn’t interrupt sex
Unlike the pill, the hormones do
not need to be absorbed by the
stomach, so the patch is not
affected if you vomit or have
Usually makes your bleeds
regular, lighter and less painful
It may help with premenstrual
It may reduce the risk of cancer of
the ovary, womb and colon
It may reduce the risk of fibroids,
ovarian cysts and non-cancerous
breast disease
It's visible
It may cause skin irritation in a
small number of women
Like the pill, temporary side-
effects at first may include
headaches, nausea, breast
tenderness and mood changes
Breakthrough bleeding
(unexpected bleeding while using
the patch) and spotting can be
The patch can have some serious
side-effects, but these are not
common. They may include:
Raised blood pressure
A very small number of women
may develop a blood clot, which
can block a vein (venous
thrombosis) or an artery (arterial
thrombosis, heart attack or stroke)
Possible increase in risk of being
diagnosed with breast cancer
Possible increase in risk of cervical
cancer if used continuously for
more than five years
Can anyone use the patch?
The patch may not be suitable for all
women. For most women the
benefits of the patch outweigh the
possible risks.
It may be unsuitable for you to use
the patch if you:
Think you might be pregnant
Smoke and are over 35, or are
over 35 and stopped smoking less
than a year ago
Are very overweight
Take certain medicines - always
Have had a previous thrombosis
Have a heart abnormality,
circulatory disease or high blood
Have very severe migraines or
migraines with aura
Have breast cancer now or within
the past five years
Have active liver or gall bladder
Have diabetes with complications,
or have had diabetes for more
than 20 years
What if the patch comes off?
The patch is very sticky and should
stay on in the shower, bath or sauna,
during swimming and exercise.
If the patch has been off for fewer
than 48 hours, just reapply it as soon
as possible or use a new one, then
continue as normal.
If it has been off for more than 48
hours, start a whole new patch cycle
by applying a new one as soon as
possible. Use additional
contraception for seven days. Seek
advice about emergency
contraception if you had sex in the
previous few days and were not
using a condom.
Other things to consider
Initially, you'll be given three
months' supply of the patch. If
there are no problems you will
then be given up to a year’s
You don’t need a cervical
screening test or an internal
examination to have the patch
The patch does not protect you
against sexually transmitted
Where can I get the patch?
The patch is free on the NHS from
contraception clinics, sexual health
clinics or general practice.

Tuesday, 4 September 2012


By James Munyeki
There was mixed reactions of shock
and laughter at a Nyahururu court
after a middle-aged woman admitted
stalking a 36 year old teacher.
The businesswoman, Susan
Nyambura, admitted sending love
messages to Anthony Gathekia calling
for love.
Nyahururu principal Magistrate Denis
Mikoyan heard that the trader at Ol
Jororok township in Nyandarua west
district had been stopping the primary
school teacher by the road several
times calling for love.
The court also heard that the woman
had visited the man several times at
his home to begging to be loved.
Standing steadily at the dock, the
woman admitted that it was love that
had caused her do all this.
“I love this man and I do not have the
intention of hurting him. This is just
pure love and I believe that the man
loves me to,” she told the magistrate
amid laughter from the courtroom.
The woman told the court that the
man had refused to love her and
pleaded that the man compelled to
love her.
“I only want to live with the man who
I believe is the love of my life and I
plead with the court to advise him to
love me. I would not have gone this
far if I did not have true love for him,”
she said.Asked if she knew that the man was
married with children, she said that
she only learnt of it last Sunday when
she visited his home.
She said that she found children
playing at the home while their
mother washing clothes outside.
The magistrate released Nyambura on
a Sh 5,000 cash bail awaiting ruling on
October 2 this year.


A year after her death, controversy
seems to still stalk freedom fighter
Wambui Otieno. Details have emerged
that Wambui’s husband, Peter
Mbugua, is soon going to court to
claim ownership to part of Wambui’s
Wambui’s daughters, had last month
thrown the former stonemason out
of Wambui’s Karen home, and also
declared him unwanted in Wambui’s
Upper Matasia home, where Wambui
was buried. Mbugua and Wambui got
married in 2003, a marriage that
raised criticism. Mbugua was then 25
years old while Wambui was 67 years.
Mbugua’s mother, then aged 53 years,
refused to accept Wambui as her
daughter in law while Wambui’s
daughters boycotted the wedding,
furious at their mother for marrying a
man 42 years her junior.
Interviewed after the wedding,
Mbugua had denied claims that he
married the wealthy widower for
financial reasons, claiming he
sincerely loved the freedom fighter,
who was 14 years older than his
mother. Mbugua’s mother died a few
days after the wedding.
Mbugua has now retained lawyer Judy
Thongori to fight Wambui’s daughters
in court, over his inheritance. Mbugua
now lives in a one-bedroom house in
Kitengela, a property owned by
Wambui’s family. It is said that one of
Wambui’s daughters threw Mbugua
out and has taken charge of the
Karen home.
According to Wambui’s
autobiography, Mau Mau Daughter: A
Life History, she fought for
independence was briefly detained by
the colonial government n 1961. After
release from prison, she married fiery
lawyer, SM Otieno against the
objections of her parents.
When her husband died in 1987,
Wambui was drawn in a protracted
battle with her husband’s clan, Umira
Kager, on where to bury SM Otieno.
When the high court ruled that SM
Otieno was to be buried in his
ancestral home, Wambui and her
children boycotted the burial.
Also a politician, Wambui formed her
own party, Kenya People's Convention
Party which she used to run for the
Kajiado North parliamentary seat. She
was heavily defeated. In 1997,
Wambui had also vied unsuccessfully
for Kamukunji parliamentary seat on a
National Democratic Party ticket.Wambui is the mother to lawyer
Gladwell Otieno, a former
Transparency International country
director. Wambui Otieno died in
August 30, 2011 at Nairobi Hospital.