Wednesday, 26 September 2012

All of Earth's naturally-occurring gold is
within its core. The gold we mine from
the planet's crust was delivered by
meteorites.
Scientists have shown that the Earth's
surface became enriched with precious
metals by impacting meteorites.
The Earth's crust and mantle has
considerably more gold than expected
from favoured models of planetary
formation.
A study from the University of Bristol
looked at some of the oldest rocks on
Earth, demonstrating that gold was
delivered by meteorites long after their
formation.
Their results are published in Nature.
While the Earth was forming, iron sank
to the centre of the planet, forming the
core.
Any precious metals in the planetary
mix would have gone with this iron
and concentrated in the core, leaving
the mantle devoid of elements such as
gold, platinum, and osmium.
But this is not what we observe. In
fact, the silicate mantle has up to 1,000
times more gold than anticipated.
Several reasons for this enrichment
were proposed in the past, including
delivery by meteorites, although until
now it has not been possible to prove.
By measuring isotopes in rocks that are
nearly four billion years old from
Greenland, the team has managed to
date the gold delivery, and to relate it
to an event known as the "terminal
bombardment".
source: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/
science-environment-14827624

Tuesday, 18 September 2012

CONTRACEPTIVE PATCH

This is a contraceptive that works like
the pill but with the advantage that
you don't have to remember to take
it every day.
What's the contraceptive patch?
It is a small, thin, beige, sticky skin
patch that contains the same
hormones as the pill - estrogen and
progestogen. These are similar to
the hormones women produce in
their ovaries.
How does it work?
The patch delivers a constant daily
dose of hormones into the
bloodstream through the skin. This
stops the ovaries from releasing an
egg (ovulation) each month. The
patch also:
Thickens the mucus in the cervix,
making it difficult for sperm to
reach an egg
Makes the lining of the womb
thinner so it's less likely to accept
a fertilised egg
How reliable is it?
Effectiveness depends on how
carefully it's used. The patch is more
than 99 per cent effective when used
according to instructions. This means
that, using this method, fewer than
one woman in 100 will get pregnant
in a year. It is less effective in women
weighing 90kg (14st) and over.
Myth: The patch is more reliable
than the pill
Fact: Not true - the effectiveness of
the patch is the same as the pill
Myth: It falls off easily
Fact: Not true - it's very sticky
How do you use it?
The patch is used for three weeks
out of every four. A new patch is
used each week.
The patch can be started up to and
including the fifth day of a period. If
used at this time it's effective straight
away. If started at any other time,
additional contraception has to be
used for seven days.
After 21 days you have a break of
seven days when you have a bleed.
This withdrawal bleed is usually
shorter and lighter than normal
periods.
You can use the patch on most
areas of the body as long as the skin
is clean, dry and not very hairy. You
should not put it on skin that is sore
or where it can be rubbed by tight
clothing. Don’t put it on your
breasts.
Advantages:
You only need to remember to
replace the patch once a week
It doesn’t interrupt sex
Unlike the pill, the hormones do
not need to be absorbed by the
stomach, so the patch is not
affected if you vomit or have
diarrhoea
Usually makes your bleeds
regular, lighter and less painful
It may help with premenstrual
symptoms
It may reduce the risk of cancer of
the ovary, womb and colon
It may reduce the risk of fibroids,
ovarian cysts and non-cancerous
breast disease
Disadvantages:
It's visible
It may cause skin irritation in a
small number of women
Like the pill, temporary side-
effects at first may include
headaches, nausea, breast
tenderness and mood changes
Breakthrough bleeding
(unexpected bleeding while using
the patch) and spotting can be
common
The patch can have some serious
side-effects, but these are not
common. They may include:
Raised blood pressure
A very small number of women
may develop a blood clot, which
can block a vein (venous
thrombosis) or an artery (arterial
thrombosis, heart attack or stroke)
Possible increase in risk of being
diagnosed with breast cancer
Possible increase in risk of cervical
cancer if used continuously for
more than five years
Can anyone use the patch?
The patch may not be suitable for all
women. For most women the
benefits of the patch outweigh the
possible risks.
It may be unsuitable for you to use
the patch if you:
Think you might be pregnant
Smoke and are over 35, or are
over 35 and stopped smoking less
than a year ago
Are very overweight
Take certain medicines - always
check
Have had a previous thrombosis
Have a heart abnormality,
circulatory disease or high blood
pressure
Have very severe migraines or
migraines with aura
Have breast cancer now or within
the past five years
Have active liver or gall bladder
disease
Have diabetes with complications,
or have had diabetes for more
than 20 years
What if the patch comes off?
The patch is very sticky and should
stay on in the shower, bath or sauna,
during swimming and exercise.
If the patch has been off for fewer
than 48 hours, just reapply it as soon
as possible or use a new one, then
continue as normal.
If it has been off for more than 48
hours, start a whole new patch cycle
by applying a new one as soon as
possible. Use additional
contraception for seven days. Seek
advice about emergency
contraception if you had sex in the
previous few days and were not
using a condom.
Other things to consider
Initially, you'll be given three
months' supply of the patch. If
there are no problems you will
then be given up to a year’s
supply
You don’t need a cervical
screening test or an internal
examination to have the patch
The patch does not protect you
against sexually transmitted
infections
Where can I get the patch?
The patch is free on the NHS from
contraception clinics, sexual health
clinics or general practice.

Tuesday, 4 September 2012

WOMAN CHARGED FOR STALKING MAN FOR LOVE

By James Munyeki
There was mixed reactions of shock
and laughter at a Nyahururu court
after a middle-aged woman admitted
stalking a 36 year old teacher.
The businesswoman, Susan
Nyambura, admitted sending love
messages to Anthony Gathekia calling
for love.
Nyahururu principal Magistrate Denis
Mikoyan heard that the trader at Ol
Jororok township in Nyandarua west
district had been stopping the primary
school teacher by the road several
times calling for love.
The court also heard that the woman
had visited the man several times at
his home to begging to be loved.
Standing steadily at the dock, the
woman admitted that it was love that
had caused her do all this.
“I love this man and I do not have the
intention of hurting him. This is just
pure love and I believe that the man
loves me to,” she told the magistrate
amid laughter from the courtroom.
The woman told the court that the
man had refused to love her and
pleaded that the man compelled to
love her.
“I only want to live with the man who
I believe is the love of my life and I
plead with the court to advise him to
love me. I would not have gone this
far if I did not have true love for him,”
she said.Asked if she knew that the man was
married with children, she said that
she only learnt of it last Sunday when
she visited his home.
She said that she found children
playing at the home while their
mother washing clothes outside.
The magistrate released Nyambura on
a Sh 5,000 cash bail awaiting ruling on
October 2 this year.

MBUGUA FIGHTS FOR WAMBUI OTIENO’S PROPERTY

A year after her death, controversy
seems to still stalk freedom fighter
Wambui Otieno. Details have emerged
that Wambui’s husband, Peter
Mbugua, is soon going to court to
claim ownership to part of Wambui’s
property.
Wambui’s daughters, had last month
thrown the former stonemason out
of Wambui’s Karen home, and also
declared him unwanted in Wambui’s
Upper Matasia home, where Wambui
was buried. Mbugua and Wambui got
married in 2003, a marriage that
raised criticism. Mbugua was then 25
years old while Wambui was 67 years.
Mbugua’s mother, then aged 53 years,
refused to accept Wambui as her
daughter in law while Wambui’s
daughters boycotted the wedding,
furious at their mother for marrying a
man 42 years her junior.
Interviewed after the wedding,
Mbugua had denied claims that he
married the wealthy widower for
financial reasons, claiming he
sincerely loved the freedom fighter,
who was 14 years older than his
mother. Mbugua’s mother died a few
days after the wedding.
Mbugua has now retained lawyer Judy
Thongori to fight Wambui’s daughters
in court, over his inheritance. Mbugua
now lives in a one-bedroom house in
Kitengela, a property owned by
Wambui’s family. It is said that one of
Wambui’s daughters threw Mbugua
out and has taken charge of the
Karen home.
According to Wambui’s
autobiography, Mau Mau Daughter: A
Life History, she fought for
independence was briefly detained by
the colonial government n 1961. After
release from prison, she married fiery
lawyer, SM Otieno against the
objections of her parents.
When her husband died in 1987,
Wambui was drawn in a protracted
battle with her husband’s clan, Umira
Kager, on where to bury SM Otieno.
When the high court ruled that SM
Otieno was to be buried in his
ancestral home, Wambui and her
children boycotted the burial.
Also a politician, Wambui formed her
own party, Kenya People's Convention
Party which she used to run for the
Kajiado North parliamentary seat. She
was heavily defeated. In 1997,
Wambui had also vied unsuccessfully
for Kamukunji parliamentary seat on a
National Democratic Party ticket.Wambui is the mother to lawyer
Gladwell Otieno, a former
Transparency International country
director. Wambui Otieno died in
August 30, 2011 at Nairobi Hospital.

Tuesday, 28 August 2012

KENYAN MUSICIAN GRABS BEAUTY CROWN

By Kiundu Waweru
They called her pantera, Spanish for a
feminine panther, a black leopard.
And Esther Wahome proudly stood to
be counted among the world’s most
beautiful women. She stood out for
she was the only black African
competing for the Mrs Universe crown
at the recent beauty pageant in
Russia.
Before she left for the annual
competition, Wahome promised to
bring home the crown.
But when she saw the other beautiful
women eyeing the same crown in
Petersburg City, she thought her
chances were slim.
She was up against “great people in
the runway and beauty industry”.
But when all ended, she got the
crown of the first runners-up. “I still
can’t believe it, I have the crown and
the sash written Mrs Universe 2012,
No 2,” said Wahome on her return.
The Mrs Universe Ltd, whose winners
are described as the ‘most
honourable woman on earth’, was
founded in 2007 in Bulgaria by Megi
Savova.
The annual competition brings
married women from different
countries together for seven to ten
days during which they are involved in
different activities and are united in
the motto, ‘Against Violence’.
Inner beauty
But unlike the other beauty pageants,
Mrs Universe is not only inclined into
physical beauty, but also the inner
beauty. Entrants must be married
women aged 25 to 45.
The nominees must have excelled in
their career and used it to empower
their communities. Wahome
represented Kenya in the pageant,
which was held from August 4, with
the crowning night on August 11.
“I almost lost hope,” she told The
Standard. “The competition was really
tough. Many seemed to have won in
great pageants previously, while
others are people you will easily see
on billboards across the globe.”
Confronted with this reality, the
gospel singer never thought she had a
chance of making it to the top 20. But
then she started thinking she might
just make it when all the sponsoring
corporates picked her for a photo
shoot to promote their brand in the
days before the big night. There is the
feeling in the beauty world that black
models are discriminated against.
“For me it was a different experience.
My skin colour seemed to work to my
advantage. Everybody said I looked
like a pantera.” She wasn’t sure what
kind of animal that was until they
reassured her it was a “beautiful wild
cat”.
“They kept asking if I was born with
the eyes of a pantera or I had
undergone plastic surgery.”
Before going to Russia, Wahome held
a thanksgiving dinner at the Hilton,
where she strutted on the catwalk and
promised to use the Mrs Universe
platform to let people know that
marriages work.
She introduced her husband of 16
years, before thanking him for his
support and publicly declaring, “I love
you.”
The audience broke into a hearty
applause.

Friday, 24 August 2012

TSC sacks officers over Asumbi tragedy

By Standard Digital Reporter
The Teachers Service Commission
(TSC) has sacked Homabay County
Director of Education Beatrice Asiango
and District Education Officer William
Okumu over Asumbi Primary fire
tragedy that killed 8 pupils.
The Schools’ Board of Governors has
also been dissolved following the
Wednesday night inferno.
TSC is also set to take action on the
schools head teacher for violating
tuition ban.
On Thursday, Education Minister
Mutula Kilonzo had directed his PS to
take disciplinary action against Homa
Bay director of education for the
death of eight children in a dormitory
fire.
Mutula had recommended that the
county director, the school head
teacher and the management board
be disciplined for failing to adhere to
the national policy on holiday tuition.
“I have instructed the PS to institute
disciplinary action against the
concerned. This is a tragic incident
that should not have happened,” said
Mutula on Thursday.
Eight students were burned alive
inside their dormitory on Wednesday
after it caught fire and were unable to
run to safety because the door to the
hostel was locked from outside.
Witnesses say the young girls at St
Theresa’s Asumbi Girls Boarding
Primary in Homabay County,
screamed for help as the inferno
raged but there was no rescue nearby
at the school managed by Catholic
nuns.
It was not immediately clear as to why
the pupils were locked up as the
tragedy visited the school only two
weeks after Education ministry
banned holiday tuition.
The ninth victim, who was rescued by
villagers from the fierce fire, was
rushed to Homabay District Hospital in
a critical condition.
Initial investigations pointed at a tree
which fell on an electricity line before
the fire started.
The girls who had retired to bed were
burnt beyond recognition as their
colleagues in an adjacent dormitory
scampered for safety for fear of losing
their lives in a fire that started shortly
after 8PM.
The burned dormitory had its
windows grilled with wire mesh and
did not have emergency exit.
During the incident, tens of locals
responded to the girls’ distress calls
and forced their way into the
institution after the watchman at the
gate declined to open for them, only
to find the dormitory door locked
from outside with a padlock.
“The dormitory was on fire, we broke
the padlock and one girl managed to
come out burning and she collapsed
on reaching outside. She was rushed
by an ambulance to Homabay District
Hospital,” said William Otieno, one of
the first people to arrive at the scene.
George Owino a villager, said three of
the girls died on one bed, two bodies
were lying on the floor and the others
in a corner near the door.

Wednesday, 22 August 2012

Gonorrhoea

Gonorrhoea - or 'the clap' - can have
serious consequences for your
health if not treated promptly.
What is gonorrhoea ?
Gonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted
infection. It's caused by a bacteria
found mainly in semen and vaginal
fluids.
Causes and risk factors
It’s usually passed from one person
to another during vaginal, oral or
anal sex, or by sharing sex toys. It
can live inside the cells of the:
Cervix.
Urethra.
Rectum.
Throat.
Eyes (although this is rare).
Gonorrhoea can also be passed
from a pregnant woman to her
baby.
Symptoms
About 50 per cent of women and 10
per cent of men who are infected
will not have any obvious signs or
symptoms.
Symptoms can appear any time
from one to 14 days after coming
into contact with gonorrhoea, or
many months later, or not until the
infection spreads to other parts of
you body.
Women might notice:
Unusual vaginal discharge - this
may be thin, watery, yellow or
green.
Pain when urinating.
Lower abdominal pain or
tenderness.
Bleeding between periods.
Men might notice:
Unusual discharge from the tip of
the penis - this may be white,
yellow or green, and there may be
inflammation of the foreskin.
Pain when urinating.
Painful or tender testicles.
If the infection is in the rectum or
eye, you may experience discomfort,
pain or discharge. Gonorrhoea in the
throat usually has no symptoms.
Treatment and recovery
It's important to be tested quickly if
you think you might have
gonorrhoea. Testing's free on the
NHS from genitourinary medicine
(GUM) clinics, sexual health clinics,
some contraception clinics and your
GP.
The test for gonorrhoea is simple
and painless. Either a urine test is
done or a swab (like a cotton bud) is
used to take a sample of cells from
the vagina or urethra. If you've had
anal or oral sex, a swab will be taken
from your rectum or throat. Your
eyes will be tested if you have
conjunctivitis (discharge from the
eye).
Gonorrhoea is easy to treat with a
single dose of antibiotics, either by
tablets or injection. The antibiotics
used to treat gonorrhoea interact
with the combined oral contraceptive
pill and the contraceptive patch
making them less effective, so check
this with your doctor or nurse.
To avoid reinfection, any sexual
partners should be treated too. If
complications occur, another
treatment might be needed.
Without treatment, the infection can
spread to other parts of the body
causing damage and long-term
health problems, including infertility.
In women, gonorrhoea can spread
to the reproductive organs causing
pelvic inflammatory disease. This can
lead to:
Long-term pelvic pain.
Ectopic pregnancy (when a
pregnancy develops outside the
womb, usually in the fallopian
tube).
Blocked fallopian tubes (the tubes
that carry the egg from ovary to
womb).
In men, gonorrhoea can lead to
painful infection in the testicles and
the prostate gland. It may reduce
fertility.
Less commonly, gonorrhoea can
cause inflammation of the joints and
tendons. Rarely, it can cause
inflammation of the brain, spinal
cord and heart.
Advice and support
Go to your GP, a genitourinary
medicine clinic or a sexual health
clinic. All services are confidentia

Chlamydia

Chlamydia is one of the most
common STIs - and usually goes
untreated, affecting up to one in ten
sexually active young people.
What is chlamydia?
Chlamydia is one of the most
common sexually transmitted
infections (STIs). It's a bacterial
infection, which is found in semen
and vaginal fluids.
Causes and risk factors
Chlamydia is usually passed from
one person to another during
vaginal, oral or anal sex, or by
sharing sex toys. It can live inside
cells of the cervix, urethra, rectum
and sometimes in the throat and
eyes.
Chlamydia can also be passed from
a pregnant woman to her baby.
Symptoms
Chlamydia is often referred to as the
'silent infection', as most men and
women don't have any obvious
signs or symptoms, or they're so
mild they're not noticed.
Symptoms can appear one to three
weeks after you've come into contact
with chlamydia, or many months
later, or not until the infection
spreads to other parts of your body.
Women might notice:
Unusual vaginal discharge.
Bleeding between periods or
during or after sex.
Pain with sex or when passing
urine.
Lower abdominal pain.
Men might notice:
White/cloudy, watery discharge
from the tip of the penis.
Pain when passing urine or
painful testicles.
If the infection is in the eye or
rectum, you may experience
discomfort, pain or discharge.
Chlamydia in the throat is
uncommon and usually has no
symptoms.
Treatment and recovery
If you think you might have
chlamydia, it's important to be tested
quickly. Testing is free on the NHS
from genitourinary medicine (GUM)
clinics, sexual health clinics, many
contraception clinics, your GP and
pharmacies. In some areas testing
kits may also be available by post.
The National Chlamydia Screening
Programme in England is being
extended to ensure all sexually active
women and men under 25 can
access chlamydia testing - this
includes testing in other settings
such as youth clubs and colleges.
You can also buy home chlamydia
testing kits, but the accuracy of these
tests varies so it's important to get
good advice from a pharmacist.
Women having intrauterine
contraception (IUD or IUS) fitted, or
having an abortion, will be offered a
chlamydia test.
The test is simple and painless.
Either a urine test is done or a swab
(like a cotton bud) is used to take a
sample of cells from the vagina or
urethra. If you've had anal or oral
sex, a swab will be taken from the
rectum or throat. Your eyes will be
tested if you have symptoms of
conjunctivitis (discharge from the
eye).
Chlamydia is easy to treat with
antibiotics, either as a single dose or
longer course for up to two weeks.
Tell your doctor or nurse if you're
pregnant, or think you might be, or
you're breastfeeding - this might
affect the type of antibiotic you're
given. The antibiotics used to treat
chlamydia interact with the
combined oral contraceptive pill and
the contraceptive patch, making
them less effective, so check this with
the doctor or nurse.
To avoid reinfection, any sexual
partners should be treated too.
Every time you have a new sexual
partner you need to be tested. If
complications occur, another
treatment might be needed.
Without treatment, the infection can
spread to other parts of the body
causing damage and long-term
health problems, including infertility.
In women, chlamydia can cause
pelvic inflammatory disease. This can
lead to:
Ectopic pregnancy (when a
pregnancy develops outside the
womb, usually in the fallopian
tube).
Blocked fallopian tubes (the tubes
that carry the egg from ovary to
womb).
Long-term pelvic pain.
In men, chlamydia can lead to
painful infection in the testicles and
possibly reduced fertility.
Rarely, chlamydia can lead to
inflammation of the joints in both
men and women. This is known as
reactive arthritis. When this involves
the urethra and the eyes, it is known
as Reiter's syndrome.
Advice and support
Go to your GP, a GUM clinic or a
sexual health clinic. All services are
confidential. You can also ask a
pharmacist.

How to avoid STIs

Male and female condoms, when
used correctly, can help protect
against STIs.
Before you have sex, talk to your
partner about using condoms.
Use condoms every time you have
vaginal or anal sex.
If you have oral sex, use a dam.

Tuesday, 21 August 2012

Astronomers have found evidence for a planet being devoured by its star, yielding insights into the fate that will befall Earth in billions of years.

The team uncovered the signature of
a planet that had been "eaten" by
looking at the chemistry of the host
star.
They also think a surviving planet
around this star may have been kicked
into its unusual orbit by the
destruction of a neighbouring world.
Details of the work have been
published in Astrophysical Journal
Letters
.
The US-Polish-Spanish team made the
discovery when they were studying
the star BD+48 740 - which is one of a
stellar class known as red giants. Their
observations were made with the
Hobby Eberly telescope, based at the
McDonald Observatory in Texas.
Rising temperatures near the cores of
red giants cause these elderly stars to
expand in size, a process which will
cause any nearby planets to be
destroyed.
"A similar fate may await the inner
planets in our solar system, when the
Sun becomes a red giant and
expands all the way out to Earth's
orbit some five billion years from
now," said co-author Prof Alexander
Wolszczan from Pennsylvania State
University in the US.
Lithium boost
The first piece of evidence for the
missing planet comes from the star's
peculiar chemical composition.
Spectroscopic analysis of BD+48 740
revealed that it contained an
abnormally high amount of lithium, a
rare element created primarily during
the Big Bang 14 billion years ago.
Lithium is easily destroyed in stars, so
its high abundance in this ageing star
is very unusual.
"Theorists have identified only a few,
very specific circumstances, other
than the Big Bang, under which
lithium can be created in stars," Prof
Wolszczan explained.
"In the case of BD+48 740, it is
probable that the lithium production
was triggered by a mass the size of a
planet that spiralled into the star and
heated it up while the star was
digesting it."
The second piece of evidence
discovered by the astronomers is the
highly elliptical orbit of a newly
discovered planet around the red
giant star. The previously undetected
world is at least 1.6 times as massive
as Jupiter.
Co-author Andrzej Niedzielski of
Nicolaus Copernicus University in
Torun, Poland, said that orbits as
eccentric as this one are uncommon
in planetary systems around evolved
stars.
"In fact, the BD+48 740 planet's orbit
is the most elliptical one detected so
far," he added.
Because gravitational interactions
between planets are often
responsible for such peculiar orbits,
the astronomers suspect that the dive
of the missing planet toward its host
star before it became a giant could
have given the surviving massive
planet a burst of energy.
This boost would have propelled it
into its present unusual orbit.
Team member Eva Villaver of the
Universidad Autonoma de Madrid in
Spain commented: "Catching a planet
in the act of being devoured by a star
is an almost improbable feat to
accomplish because of the
comparative swiftness of the process,
but the occurrence of such a collision
can be deduced from the way it
affects the stellar chemistry.
"The highly elongated orbit of the
massive planet we discovered around
this lithium-polluted red giant star is
exactly the kind of evidence that
would point to the star's recent
destruction of its now-missing planet."

Vaginismus

Women who have blocked
intercourse, also known as
vaginismus, are unable to have
penetrative sex.
What is vaginismus?
Vaginismus is a psychological
condition that manifests itself in a
powerful physical response.
Whenever there's an attempt to
penetrate the vagina the muscles
surrounding the entrance go into
involuntary spasm.
Some women may be easily aroused
and enjoy regular orgasms - but for
some reason, intercourse isn't
possible. Others, however, may have
little sexual interest and a lot of fears
and anxieties about penetration.
Some women will have had the
condition all their adult lives, for
others it may have occurred after a
trauma or in a particular
relationship. Either way, vaginismus
can have a devastating effect on
quality of life. Not only do they find it
more difficult to enjoy love-making,
but the inability to be penetrated
makes the decision to start a family
very difficult.
Causes and risk factors
There are many causes, though
none are physical. If you've suffered
painful intercourse in the past, then
vaginismus may be an unconscious
response to avoid more pain.
Broadly speaking, the common
psychological causes can be split into
three categories:
Personal issues about sex. Some
women are brought up believing
it’s a bad and dangerous thing.
There may have been very
powerful cultural or religious
taboos that left you with feelings
of guilt or shame whenever you
felt any sexual desire. Puberty
may have been associated with
feeling dirty or embarrassed or if
there was inadequate sex
education, women can grow up
feeling that it's physically
impossible to be penetrated.
Previous traumatic experiences. If,
at any stage in your life, you've
experienced a traumatic incident
associated with your sexuality or
your genital area, you may have
developed vaginismus as a
protective response to further
hurt. For some, vaginismus comes
in the aftermath of a rape or
sexual abuse. Contact Rape Crisis
for help and advice if you have
been raped or sexually assaulted
recently or in the past.
Relationship problems. There may
be unresolved anxieties between
you and your partner that may be
causing or at least contributing to
the problem. If you're unhappy
about something in your
relationship, talk it through and
try to resolve the issue.
Treatment and recovery
The good news is that vaginismus is
a treatable condition once
appropriate help has been found.
Your GP will help you understand
what's causing the problem and
how best to tackle it.

Premature ejaculation

Some simple techniques can help to
stop this frustrating problem.
What is premature ejaculation?
This is one of the most common
sexual problems in men. It's
particularly common in younger
men when sexual activity is relatively
new to them, and for any man
who's with a new sexual partner,
since under these circumstances the
level of sexual excitement is very
high.
When premature ejaculation
becomes a problem, men suffer with
performance anxiety. They worry
about ejaculating prematurely, it
happens, and they find themselves in
a downward spiral.
Treatment and recovery
Sex therapists recommend a few
straightforward techniques to
prevent or delay ejaculation. You can
practice these on your own or with
your partner:
Take a deep breath as you feel
your climax approaching. This will
briefly switch off the ejaculation
reflex.
The squeeze technique involves
squeezing below the tip of your
penis when the climax is
imminent for ten to 20 seconds.
It helps to think about something
boring at the same time to take
your mind off more exciting
things.
During foreplay or intercourse,
stopping and starting sexual
stimulation helps to lengthen the
time taken to reach climax, and
can be combined with the
squeeze technique.
If you keep practising and stay
relaxed, you should find that the
problem disappears.

Dyspareunia

Many women suffer pain during
intercourse - known as dyspareunia -
at some point. For most, it's a
passing discomfort. But for some,
pain becomes a regular feature.
What is dyspareunia?
Lack of sexual arousal is by far the
most common cause of painful
intercourse. When a women's body
is ready for sex, the vagina expands
both lengthways and widthways.
While this is happening, it becomes
moist and lubricated to avoid any
friction. The vagina wasn't designed
to be penetrated in its unaroused
state.
If you're sure you're fully aroused
but still experiencing pain, check
with your GP that you aren't
suffering from an underlying
condition. These can include:
Childbirth. It's quite common for
women to suffer some discomfort
after childbirth, particularly if
there was an episiotomy - a cut to
make delivery easier.
The menopause. Intercourse may
be more painful during the
menopause as lower oestrogen
levels cause a thinning of the
vaginal wall. Ask your GP or local
menopause clinic about
oestrogen cream, which usually
resolves the problem quite
quickly.
Urinary infections. Cystitis or
vaginal irritations such as thrush,
vaginitis, and genital warts are
also likely to cause soreness. Once
the underlying condition has
been diagnosed, a course of
treatment should solve the
problem.
Sensitivity to condoms. You may
be irritated by certain makes of
condoms, contraceptive creams
or lubricants. Experiment with
different brands.
Causes and risk factors
The problem with pain is that it
blocks sexual arousal, which causes
further pain.
Many women find that they're
caught up in a pain cycle - having
experienced painful intercourse
before, they fear more pain which
blocks arousal, causing more pain
and so the cycle continues.
Treatment and recovery
There are a number of self-help
techniques wich may help:
Relax. This is the most important
thing you can do. Have a bath,
use deep-breathing techniques or
buy a relaxation tape from your
local health shop.
Work on relationship issues. You
need to be sure that your head
and heart are in the mood for sex
as well as your body. If you're
unhappy about something with
your partner then sort it out first.
Exercise your pelvic floor. This will
increase the blood flow to your
genital area and make you more
conscious of any sensations of
physical arousal.
Use lubrication to speed up the
process; keep a tube by the bed.
Stimulate your sympathetic
nervous system with exercise, or
anything that will speed up your
heart rate. Research suggests that
your body will be more sexually
responsive 15 to 30 minutes later.
Don't worry if none of the self-help
techniques work for you, it's likely
that whatever is causing the pain is
treatable once appropriate help has
been found.
If you've been suffering from painful
intercourse for a while, it's essential
to check that you're not suffering
from an underlying condition.
If the pain is in your lower abdomen
or to one side, you should see your
GP to rule out any gynaecological
disorder such as:
Endometriosis .
Prolapse .
Ovarian cysts.
Fibroids.
Pelvic inflammatory disease.
Another possible cause is uterine
retroversion, a natural condition
where the womb tilts towards the
back of the pelvis. In all these
conditions, you may find that a
different position, where thrusting is
not so deep, is more comfortable.
If you experience ongoing vulval
discomfort then you should check
with your GP to see whether you're
experiencing vulvodynia or vulval
vestibulitus. You can get more
information on these conditions
from the Vulval Pain Society.

Impotence

Erectile dysfunction is a problem for
at least one in every ten men in the
UK.
What is impotence?
Impotence is now more commonly
known as erectile dysfunction (ED),
or sometimes erection difficulties.
Men find they're unable to achieve or
sustain an erection adequate for
sexual intercourse.
Symptoms
A man may find that he is unable to
achieve an erection at all, or that he
cannot sustain one that is hard
enough or lasts long enough for
sexual intercourse. Men with ED may
feel angry or guilty, and become
depressed. Many lose interest in sex
and relationships often suffer.
Cause and risk factors
It's thought that 70 per cent of cases
have physical causes and 30 per cent
psychological causes. However, often
there are both physical and
psychological reasons for the
condition.
Most men experience occasions at
some time in their lives, when they
cannot achieve or sustain an
erection, as a result of fatigue, stress
or excessive alcohol consumption.
Among younger men, ED is often
caused by anxiety – just about
having sex, pleasing their partner or
getting her pregnant. In middle age
stress, overwork and tiredness often
play a part.
Among older men, physical causes
become more common. These
include diabetes, thyroid or kidney
problems, high blood pressure,
damage to nerves or blood vessels,
pelvic surgery or trauma, heavy
smoking and the side-effects of
medication.
However, one of the commonest
causes is atherosclerosis – damage
to the small blood vessels which
control blood supply to the penis. In
fact researchers have warned that
erectile dysfunction may be an early
warning of widespread
atherosclerosis which could lead
within a couple of years to a heart
attack. Psychological problems may
also be relevant in ED, and include
depression, and sexual or
relationship worries.
Treatment and recovery
Treatment depends on the
underlying cause. The first step is to
talk to someone who understands
the problem, such as your GP or a
properly qualified specialist. They will
help to check for physical causes,
advise on treatments and refer you
on to a suitable therapist if
appropriate. It may also help to talk
to your partner about the problem,
and sexual counselling may be an
option.
In the past decade oral new
medicines (tablets) that help a man
to achieve an erection have radically
improved the treatment of ED. These
drugs work for the majority of men
affected, whatever the cause.
But they don’t help or suit everyone
and can cause important side effects.
So other treatments still have a place
– these include mechanical aids such
as vacuum pumps or penile
implants, and medicines such as
intra-urethral pellet therapy and
injections into the penis. Your doctor
should be able to help you find a
treatment that will work for you.
To reduce your risk of ED, avoid
smoking and excessive alcohol, eat
healthily, take regular exercise, and
make sure you relax and get plenty
of rest.

Female sexual dysfunction

What is female sexual
dysfunction?
Inadequate sexual function in
women is a complex problem that
can have many different causes. It is
estimated that up to 40% of women
have suffered from sexual problems
in the last year. This might be caused
by physical illness, but is often linked
to psychological factors.
The female equivalent of impotence
is known as Female Sexual Arousal
Disorder (FSAD). When men and
women become sexually aroused,
their genitals become engorged with
blood. In women this normally
results in:
Enlargement of the clitoris and
surrounding tissues (comparable
to a male erection)
Secretion of vaginal lubrication
Relaxation and widening of the
vaginal opening to permit
intercourse.
FSAD patients have the desire to
have sex but their genital area fails
to respond in the normal way,
making sex painful or impossible.
Causes and risk factors
FSAD can result from an underlying
medical condition, such as high
blood pressure or diabetes. It can
also be caused by irritations,
infections and growths in the vaginal
area, or reactions to contraceptive
devices. Medications used to treat
high blood pressure, peptic ulcers,
depression or anxiety and cancer
may also cause problems.
Another factor is the physical,
hormonal and emotional changes
that occur during or after pregnancy
or while breast feeding, or, very
importantly, during and after the
menopause. FSAD is also often
linked to psychological causes. These
can include:
Inadequate or ineffective foreplay
Depression
Poor self-esteem
Sexual abuse or incest
Feelings of shame or guilt about
sex
Fear of pregnancy
Stress and fatigue
Symptoms
The symptoms of sexual dysfunction
can include lack of sexual desire, an
inability to enjoy sex, insufficient
vaginal lubrication, or, even if
sexually aroused, a failure to achieve
an orgasm. Women who suffer from
Female Orgasmic Disorder (FOD) are
unable to achieve orgasm despite
being sufficiently aroused to have
sex.
Women differ from men in that
orgasm is a learned, not automatic,
response. About five to ten percent
of women never have an orgasm
through any type of sexual activity - a
condition called anorgasmia.
Anorgasmia is most often the result
of sexual inexperience, performance
anxiety, or past experiences, such as
sexual trauma or a strict upbringing,
that have led to an inhibition of
sexual response.
Some women are able to enjoy
sexual activity in spite of reaching
orgasm only some or even none of
the time. FOD is a problem only if it
has a negative effect on the
satisfaction of a woman or her
partner.
Treatment and prevention
On-going research has suggested
the anti-impotence drug for men,
‘Viagra’, may help to treat sexual
disorders in women by increasing
blood flow to the sexual organs and
thereby increasing physical
stimulation in the area. However, the
scientific community is still waiting
for firm evidence to be published
that the drug that the drug can work
on women. A small study published
recently found no positive impact on
postmenopausal women.
Testosterone has been looked at as
a treatment also but again, results
have not been as positive as
hoped.For the moment, doctors
concentrate, where possible, on
eliminating medications that might
have a negative effect on sexual
performance. They also review
contraceptive methods to ascertain
whether this is a factor.
Women who suffer from vaginal
dryness may also be recommended
to use lubricants during intercourse.
Some doctors recommend that
women use Kegel exercises, which
help to develop the muscles around
the outer portion of the vagina that
are involved in pleasurable
sensations. Psychological counselling
can also play an important part in
treating women with sexual
problems, as can coaching in sexual
foreplay and stimulation techniques.

Erectile dysfunction

What is erectile dysfunction?
Erectile dysfunction is the repeated
inability to get or keep an erection
firm enough for sexual intercourse.
Due to the sensitive nature of the
condition, it is difficult to estimate
how many men it affects. However,
recent studies show 22% of 40-year-
old men and up to 49% of 70-year-
old men may have the condition.
Causes and risk factors
The most common cause of erectile
dysfunction is damage to the tissues,
either the nerves, arteries, muscles
or fibrous tissue. This is often linked
either to disease. Conditions such as
diabetes, kidney disease, chronic
alcoholism, multiple sclerosis and
cardiovascular disease account for
around 70% of cases of erectile
dysfunction.
In some cases the condition is
caused by damage to the nerves and
arteries near the penis which can
occur during surgery, particularly for
prostate and bladder cancer. Physical
injury to the penis, spinal cord,
prostate, bladder or pelvis can also
be a factor. Erectile dysfunction is
also a side effect of some common
medications, including blood
pressure drugs, antihistamines,
antidepressants and tranquilizers.
Experts believe that psychological
factors such as stress, anxiety, guilt,
depression, low self-esteem, and
fear of sexual failure cause up to
20% of cases. Smoking, which affects
blood flow, has also been linked to
the condition.
Symptoms
The penis contains two chambers
full of spongy tissue called the
corpora cavernosa. When a man
becomes sexually aroused impulses
from the brain and local nerves
cause muscles in the corpora
cavernosa to relax, allowing blood to
flow in and fill the spaces within the
tissue. This creates pressure in the
corpora cavernosa, making the penis
expand. A membrane called the
tunica albuginea helps trap the
blood in the corpora cavernosa,
thereby sustaining erection.
The erection is lost when the
muscles contract to stop blood
flowing into the penis, and open
outflow channels. A successful,
sustained erection requires a
sequence of events to occur in a
precise fashion. Anything which
disrupts this sequence can lead to
problems either getting, or keeping
an erection.
Treatment and prevention
There are a range of ways to treat
erectile dysfunction. Doctors will
consider sexual counselling for
patients who are likely to benefit, but
alternatives include drugs, vacuum
devices, and surgery.
Drug Therapy
One drug in particular, sildenafil
(‘Viagra’), has become an
international phenomenon since its
launch in the late 1990s. The drug
does not directly give a man an
erection but it works by boosting the
natural mechanism that leads to an
erection. When a man is sexually
aroused, certain tissues in his penis
relax, as mentioned above. Viagra
helps by elevating the levels of the
chemical that causes the tissues to
relax. These effects were discovered
accidentally. The drug was originally
developed to improve blood supply
to the heart in angina sufferers.
In a small number of cases, people
who have taken sildenafil have
complained of headaches, flushing
and stomach-ache. It can also cause
some visual problems, including an
increased sensitivity to light, blurred
vision or an inability to tell the
difference between blue and green.
Men who are already taking
medicines that contain nitrates, such
as nitro-glycerine, are strongly
advised not to use Viagra as this is
dangerous and may result in a heart
attack.
Other similar drugs are tadalafil
(‘Cialis’)and vardenafil (‘Levitra’).
Penile injections: The injection of
drugs such as alprostadil directly into
the tissues of the penis to trigger an
erection was more common before
the advent of new drugs such as
sildenafil. The drugs relax muscles
and increase blood flow to create an
erection. They are also available as
pellets to insert in to the urethra (the
opening at the tip of the penis).
Vacuum Devices: These work by
creating a partial vacuum around the
penis, which draws blood into the
organ. The devices have three
components: a plastic cylinder, into
which the penis is placed; a pump,
which draws air out of the cylinder;
and an elastic band, which is placed
around the base of the penis to
maintain the erection after the
cylinder is removed and during
intercourse.
Surgery: There are different types of
surgery. Implanted devices, known
as prostheses, can restore erection
in many men. These can come in
different forms. For instance, paired
rods can be inserted into the
corpora cavernosa to enable the
user to manually adjust the position
of the penis. Alternatively, inflatable
cylinders can be inserted inside the
penis and expanded using
pressurized fluid. In some cases
doctors may attempt to repair
blockages in damaged arteries.
However, this usually only works if
the blockages are not widespread.

The marriage type of girl

Good Girls are Like the Apples on the
Top most part of a Tree..
While the Bad girls are the Apples that
Have fallen Down and Rotten..
So, Most Guys are Soo Lazy to Climb all
the way to the Top to get the Good
Girls, So, they tend To pick on the Bad
girls, (rotten apples) down..
Those Girls (Apples) on top,
sometimes think that there is
Something Wrong with them, Coz the
ones who are Down, rotten, (bad
ones) are picked Easily Leaving them
waiting on top..
So the ones on top Decide to fall,
hence Becoming Bad and rotten..
So, Ladies be Patient, the Right guy will
not Be tired to Climb All the way to the
top... And Get you...
Hit Like and Share..

Minister's Son Stabs His Lesbian Girlfriend At USIU After Shocking Revelations

A 22 year old USIU student is being
held at the Kasarani Police station
after he admitted to stabbing his 19
year old girlfriend. The young man
identified as Fred is the second son
to a Cabinet Minister.
Word has it that he was co-habiting
with the Aisha at a cosy apartment
around the University. A close
source revealed that he had
introduced the pretty girl to his
friends who always applauded him
for having netted such a beautiful
girl. Aisha was quite an introvert
who only paid attention to him.
However he recently started noticing
that she was withdrawn and only
hanged around her female best
friend. The two were inseparable
and sooner than later the friend
started living with them.
As soon as Fred left, the two always
locked the door claiming that the
environment was a bit unsafe. Little
did he know what they were up to.
Yesterday around midnight, Fred
who was gulping down a drink was
tipped by his neighbor that some
disturbing noise was coming from
his home. He stormed out of
Tortilas- a popular pub in the area
fearing for the worst.
On reaching home, what he saw
restored his soberness - OMG his
girlfriend was having sex with her
best friend. On confronting Aisha,
she blatantly told him that she was a
lesbian and was using him as a
cover up.
Angered, Fred reached out for a
knife and stabbed her twice on her
back and knee. She was rescued by
the neighbors who heard her
screams. Aisha is now at the Nairobi
Women’s Hospital.
Fred was visited by his friends and
claims that he has no apologies for
what he did. He says that using his
father’s influence he is sure that he
will not sleep in jail for long.

Saturday, 18 August 2012

Shinny shoes

A gentleman who always kept his black
shoes shiny
said to a woman on a
date, "I bet i can guess what colour
your underwear
is." The woman replied, "You think so,
huh? What colour
am I wearing?"
The man answered, "You're wearing
red.""Wow!" The lady responded in
delight. "How did you know that?"she
asked. He replied, "Because i'm a
genius."
On a second date with another
woman, he said,"Hey, i bet i can guess
what
colour your underwear is!"
The lady responded, "You're crazy!
Okay, what colour is my underwear?"
The man replied with a smirk, "It's
blue, of course."
The shocked lady asked, "There's no
possible way you could know that!"
"I'm a genius, i'm telling you," he said.
On a third date with another woman,
the man asked with fear, "Please tell
me you're not wearing any
underwear!" She replied, "Well, I'm
not. You worried?" "Whooo! I'm
relieved!" he mentioned with a big
gasp of air. "I thought I had a crack on
my shoes!"
Moral Lesson: Always wear Shiny shoes
When going 4 a date..

Thursday, 16 August 2012

HOW JAILED MAN SIRED SON BEHIND BARS

Dallal Ziben, 32, gave birth to baby
Muhannad after being artificially
inseminated by 37-year-old husband
Ammar, who is currently serving 32
life sentences in an Israeli prison.
Palestinians are not permitted to
receive conjugal visits, and although
Ziben has not set eyes on her
husband for 15 years, she says she
fell pregnant after the insemination.
Her husband managed to sneak out
his semen from Hadarim prison in
central Israel.
“Praise be to Allah who has blessed us
after a long absence with my husband
in prison,” Ziben told AFP shortly
before going in for an elective
Caesarean.
“My husband and I, our two girls and
the family have been waiting for this
for such a long time,” she said.
Ziben already had an 18-month-old
daughter called Basha’er when her
husband, who belongs to the Islamist
Hamas movement, was arrested.
At the time, she was also five months
pregnant with their second daughter,
Bissan.
“I am very happy. This is the first
genuine happiness in our house for
more than 15 years,” smiles Basha’er,
now 16.
“When my mother told us she was
going to get inseminated and give us a
baby brother, we couldn’t believe it,”
she said. “We have always wanted a
brother and now the dream has come
true.”After the expectant mother was
wheeled into the operating theatre, a
group of women from the family
gathered outside to wait, breaking into
celebratory ululation at the first sound
of a baby crying.
Standing outside the operating
theatre, the proud grandmother said
her son-in-law had named the baby
after one of his friends ‘who was a
martyr’.
Asked if the family objected to the way
her daughter fell pregnant, she
responded angrily.
“We are honourable people who are
known for our good reputation and
everyone supports us,” she snapped.
For her son-in-law, who no longer
has any immediate family living in the
Palestinian territories, having a boy
gives him a way of prolonging his line,
she said, explaining that his mother,
father and brother had died, and that
a second brother was living overseas.
Details of how the sperm was
smuggled out of the prison was kept a
closely guarded secret, with the family
refusing to give the slightest
information.
A spokeswoman for the Israel Prisons
Service said she was not aware of the
pregnancy, and that security prisoners
were not allowed conjugal visits, with
the Palestinian Prisoners’ Club
confirming the same information.
“Visits by prisoners’ wives are closely
supervised by prison guards and
there is no way a prisoner could get
time alone with his wife,” said a
Nablus-based spokesman.
Dr Saalem Abu al-Kheizaran, head of
the Razan fertility clinic in Nablus
which carried out the insemination
procedure, said the sperm had been
subjected to a gender separation
process to ensure the couple would
have a son.
“We received a sample of sperm from
the husband in a reliable and clinically
secure way,” he said, without going
into details.“The couple wanted a baby boy, so
we carried out a gender separation
procedure. We tried the insemination
process three times from the same
sample, but the first two attempts
failed,” he said.
Human right
Abu al-Kheizaran said the right to
have a baby was a universal human
right.
“For us it is a humanitarian issue —
everyone has the right to be a parent.
Prison must not stand in the way of
this right,” he told AFP.
Samer Samaro from the Nablus
branch of the prisoners’ ministry
agrees.
Smuggle sperm
“Having the child is a prisoner’s right.
We hope to someday reach an
agreement with the Israeli side about
this issue,” he said.
Samaro said even Israelis were
allowed that right, including Yigal
Amir, the right-wing extremist who
gunned down Prime Minister Yitzhak
Rabin in November 1995.
Amir, who was caught trying to
smuggle sperm out of prison in 2006,
was later given permission to
artificially inseminate his wife, who
gave birth to a son in 2007.
Says Samaro: “Even Rabin’s murderer
had a baby while he was in prison, so
why should Palestinians be deprived
of that right?”

Friday, 10 August 2012

SEX, GAMES AND OLYMPIC VILLAGE LIFE

The face of the Olympics is well
known the world over with
athletes winning, losing, and
straining every muscle of their
bodies in the pursuit of podium
glory.
With the disappointments from
Team Kenya some have lost
interest from watching the
Olympics. But as critics, do we
have a clue of what takes place
behind the podium?
Gold or no gold, behind the scene
is the athletes’ lives and the use of
their bodies, one that centres on
their time staying at the Olympic
Village.
"Anyone who wants to be naive
and say they don't know what's
going on in the Village are lying to
themselves," one former gold
medallist and veteran of two
Olympics told CNN of his previous
experiences at the Games. "They
know, the officials know, even the
media. It's not a secret, everyone
knows!
"(Sex) is all part of the Olympic
spirit. The International Olympic
Committee (IOC) wouldn't say
that, but it is, you can't shy away
from it. Why do you think they give
away so many condoms?"
The Athletes' Village at the Olympic
Games is a unique environment:
Nearly 3,000 tightly-packed
apartments, containing over
10,000 of the world's finest
athletes who have travelled from
more than 200 countries around
the world to stay for a two-week
sporting jamboree.
A potent mix of fit, body beautiful,
young people many of whom
have abstained from sexual
intercourse as part of a disciplined
training regime being in the
same place, at the same time;
cocooned from the outside world
by tight security and often
revelling in the glory of success
and attention of devoted crowds
and the world's press.
It is maybe only human nature
that people, when placed
together, procreate to some
extent, but that libidinous cocktail
means London 2012 officials were
right if the experiences of Sydney
and Atlanta were anything to
make 150,000 condoms -- a
record for the modern Games

available to the Village's frisky
inhabitants, according to CNN's
source
"The athletes don't know what to
expect the first time they go to the
Olympics, but it just happens,"
added the former gold medalist,
who is now approaching his late
30s, looking back at his Olympic
experiences. "As soon as you
finish competing there's no
sleeping until the next day!
This creates an environment
where athletes can bond.

GOOGLE FINED £14 MILLION OVER PRIVACY ROW

Web giant Google have been
given a £14.4 million fine by the
US government.
It's the biggest fine the US Federal
Trade Commission has ever given
to one company.
They believe that Google was
collecting information on how
people used the web though a
special computer code called
cookies on Apple's Safari system,
even though that hadn't given
them permission to do so.
But the company say that no
"personal information" had been
collected.
A spokesperson for Google said,
"We set the highest standards of
privacy and security for our users,
"The FTC is focused on a 2009
help centre page published more
than two years before our
consent decree, and a year before
Apple changed its cookie-handling
policy.
-BBC
"We have now changed that page
and taken steps to remove the ad
cookies, which collected no
personal information, from
Apple's browsers."
Lots of internet companies rely on
collecting information from web
users to make money.
But some people think that more
needs to be done to make sure
that information is kept safe.

Thursday, 9 August 2012

SCIENTISTS FIND NEW HUMAN SPECIES IN NORTHERN KENYA

Fossils from Northern Kenya show
that a new species of human lived
two million years ago, researchers
say.
The discoveries suggest that at
least three distinct species of
humans co-existed in Africa.
The research adds to a growing
body of evidence that runs
counter to the popular perception
that there was a linear evolution
from early primates to modern
humans.
The research has been published
in the journal Nature.
Anthropologists have discovered
three human fossils that are
between 1.78 and 1.95 million
years old. The specimens are of a
face and two jawbones with teeth.
The finds back the view that a skull
found in 1972 is of a separate
species of human, known as
Homo rudolfensis. The skull was
markedly different to any others
from that time. It had a relatively
large brain and long flat face.
But for 40 years the skull was the
only example of the creature and
so it was impossible to say for
sure whether the individual was
an unusual specimen or a
member of a new species.
With the discovery of the three
new fossils researchers can say
with more certainty that
H.rudolfensis really was a
separate type of human that
existed around two million years
ago alongside other species of
humans.
For a long time the oldest known
human ancestor was thought to
be a primitive species, dating back
1.8 million years ago called Homo
erectus. They had small heads,
prominent brows and stood
upright.
But 50 years ago, researchers
discovered an even older and
more primitive species of human
called Homo habilis that may have
coexisted with H. erectus. Now it
seems H. rudolfensis was around
too and raises the distinct
possibility that many other species
of human also existed at the time
This find is the latest in a growing
body of evidence that challenges
the view that our species evolved
in a smooth linear progression
from our primate ancestors.
Instead, according to Dr Meave
Leakey of the Turkana Basin
Institute in Nairobi, who led the
research the find shows that there
was a diversity early on in the
evolution of our species.
"Our past was a diverse past," she
told BBC News, "our species was
evolving in the same way that
other species of animals evolved.
There was nothing unique about
us until we began to make
sophisticated stone tools."
In other groups of animals many
different species evolve, each with
new traits, such as plumage, or
webbed feet. If the new trait is
better suited to the environment
then the new species thrives, if
not it becomes extinct. According
to Professor Chris Stringer of the
Natural History Museum in
London, fossil evidence is
increasingly suggesting that
human evolution followed the
same pattern.
"Humans seem to have been
evolving in different ways in
different regions. It was almost as
if nature was developing different
human prototypes with different
attributes, only one of which, an
ancestor of our species, was
ultimately successful in
evolutionary terms," he said.
According to Dr Leakey, the
growing body of evidence to
suggest that humans evolved in
the same way as other animals
shows that "evolution really does
work".
"It leads to amazing adaptions
and amazing species and we are
one of them," she said.
-BBC

Wednesday, 8 August 2012

OUTRAGE AS KEMBOI SNEAKS BACK HOME

By Omulo Okoth
Olympic 3,000m steeplechase
champion Ezekiel Kemboi left
London Tuesday afternoon to
return home, moments before the
Prime Minister Raila Odinga joined
Team Kenya for tea and a chat,
sparking outrage among team
officials.
Kemboi said he was returning
home to start preparing for a track
race, a 10km road and a half
marathon race in the remaining
part of this year.
He had briefly spoken to Kenyan
media at the Olympic Village when
he said he dedicated his gold
medal to President Kibaki for his
good leadership, Prime Minister's
wife Ida Raila, for defending him
during his recent court case, the
people of Kenya and his family.
He said Kenyan athletes should
have gone to Bristol to adapt with
the British weather, which he said
helped him clinch the gold medal.
"I only ran one race this year (in
Rome) and trained very well for
this Olympics. Coming to Bristol
also helped me a lot adapt to the
weather and I think that is what
other athletes should have done,"
he said.
But National Olympic Committee
of Kenya Chairman, Kipchoge
Keino wondered why Kemboi had
gone back home, leaving the team
behind. He asked Chef De Mission
Jonathan Koskei, who also
wondered who had permitted
Kemboi to leave.
Chief Executive of Team Kenya
Stephen arap Soi and Media
Liaison Peter Angwenyi also did
not know who had changed
Kemboi's ticket, bringing another
mystery to the team's
management.

MAN COMMITS SUICIDE OUTSIDE IN-LAWS’ HOME

A man committed suicide outside
his in-laws’ home in Kisumu
reportedly after his marriage
failed to work.
Omondi left a suicide note in his
house in Kibos, and walked to his
in-laws’ place, about ten
kilometres away, where he took
his life.
Ronald Omondi, 27, hanged
himself using a plastic rope at
Wathorego village on Sunday
night.
Omondi’s younger brother,
Maurice Oyugi, told The Standard
the deceased had catered for his
wife’s secondary fees. “He became
bitter when the woman left
despite all he had done for her,”
said Oyugi. ?
On Sunday evening, he called his
mother to say that he was taking
his life.
“We are devastated. We never
thought he would do this,” said
Oyugi. The body was removed to
the Nyanza Provincial Hospital
mortuary.
An elder in the area, Walter
Mumbo, said cleansing would
have to be done since it was a
taboo to commit suicide.?

#EK – ALL IS NOT WELL AT TEAM KENYA CAMP…

By Elias Makori.

Kenya came into the London
Olympics with high hopes, everyone
confident that we would surpass the
performance of Beijing four years ago
where Team Kenya scooped six gold,
four silver and four bronze medals.
But the pre-Games tension between
the National Olympic Committee of
Kenya and Athletics Kenya has thrown
Kenya’s campaign to the dogs.
It is sad watching our sports officials,
with their bloated egos, fighting turf
wars at the expense of the country’s
respected name and image.
Many will wonder just how Vivian
Cheruiyot, the double world
champion (5,000 and 10,000 metres)
faded away badly in the opening day’s
10,000m final and indeed why London
Marathon champion Mary Keitany
failed to get a medal in the marathon
last Sunday.
Questions arise from the women’s
steeplechase debacle and the fact that
we have just Hellen Obiri in
Wednesday’s 1,500m semi-finals or
how we failed to break the 44-year
jinx in the men’s 10,000m.
Well the answer to these questions is
simple: Our officials have let us down
terribly and they must do the
honourable thing and take the long
walk away from managing sport in the
country. Period.
Management abandoned officials
We raised the flag when a dozen
officials from Kenya’s Olympics
management team literally
abandoned athletes to rush to a pre-
season camp in Bristol that meant
little in terms of quality preparations,
especially for distance runners.
We saw Ezekiel Kemboi travel to
Bristol, and then flee back home due
to the atrocious conditions there,
where the recalcitrant NOCK officials
set up camp merely to rake in their
$300-a-day allowances, totally
ignoring the fact that serious
competition awaited the team at the
Olympic Stadium.
The tab was picked by the toiling
taxpayer.
There was drama as Vivian’s husband
and personal coach, along with one of
the team’s coaches and doctor were
locked out of the Olympic Village by
the NOCK team led by executive
officer Stephen arap Soi and general
team manager James Chacha, leaving
Vivian, our red-hot medal hope, in
tears.
Vivian was shattered and it was hardly
surprising that she failed to pick
herself up and take the battle to
Tirunesh Dibaba.
This didn’t bother Soi and his team
who have misused the trust bestowed
upon them by NOCK chairman, our
legend Kipchoge Keino, who, as a
respected member of the
International Olympic Committee, is
playing multiple roles here, delegating
the management of Team Kenya to
Soi, Chacha and company.
Personal wars
Vivian’s loss on Day One should have
fired a wake-up call, but rather than
address the issue, Soi and company
continued with their personal wars
with Athletics Kenya, declaring the AK
chairman, Isaiah Kiplagat, persona
non grata at the Olympic Village.
As the selfish turf wars continued, we
lost the men’s 10,000m, where Wilson
Kiprop, winner of the controversial
trials in Oregon, pulled out with an
injury that the Team Kenya officials
knew about at the Kasarani camp but
failed to address. What a shame!
AK’s decision to hold the trials in
Oregon will seriously be questioned,
as will Soi’s decision to lock out one of
the team’s medics while knowing that
some of the athletes, like
steeplechaser Lydia Rotich, who is
asthmatic, needed round the clock,
personal medical attention.
Journalists critical of Soi and the NOCK
management team have been
declared unwanted guests at the
Olympic Village, Soi’s team eager to
sweep the management rot under the
carpet as medals continue to,
painfully, slip away from our grasp.
Many joyriders
The issue of joyriders in Team Kenya
hasn’t been addressed, while the
rather unprofessional manner in
which distribution of training and
competition kit has been managed
here continues to irk the athletes, with
some of them, like swimmers Jason
and David Dunford, taking no chances
and purchasing their own strip.
As things stand here, Kenyans should
be prepared for the worst, unless
Prime Minister Raila Odinga, here for
the final days of the Games, works out
wonders to lift the dying Kenyan spirit.
Unless this happens, I can only
predict just three more gold medals
from Pamela Jelimo (800m), David
Rudisha (800m) and Wilson Kipsang
(marathon).
Forget about the women’s 5,000m,
men’s 5,000m or even women’s
1,500m where the gold medals
belong to Tirunesh Dibaba, Dejen
Gebremeskel and Fantou Magiso, all
of Ethiopia, respectively.
No personalised training
Unless the Prime Minister cracks the
whip, and unless we see the backs of
the NOCK officials who have seriously
let the athletes and the country down,
we should not expect sporting glory
to come any time soon.
The issue of pre-Games training, lack
of focus by AK’s top management and
the absence of personalised training
for our athletes are issues we will
tackle another day.
Meanwhile, we await the report of the
Parliamentary team investigating
similar mismanagement of the Kenyan
team at the last All Africa Games in
Maputo where the same officials are
implicated. Will we ever learn?

Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish - An Inspirational Story by Steve Jobs By Ignite Summit

I am honored to be with you today at
your commencement from one of the
finest universities in the world. I never
graduated from college. Truth be told,
this is the closest I've ever gotten to a
college graduation. Today I want to tell
you three stories from my life. That's it.
No big deal. Just three stories.
The first story is about connecting the
dots.
I dropped out of Reed College after
the first 6 months, but then stayed
around as a drop-in for another 18
months or so before I really quit. So
why did I drop out?
It started before I was born. My
biological mother was a young, unwed
college graduate student, and she
decided to put me up for adoption.
She felt very strongly that I should be
adopted by college graduates, so
everything was all set for me to be
adopted at birth by a lawyer and his
wife. Except that when I popped out
they decided at the last minute that
they really wanted a girl. So my
parents, who were on a waiting list, got
a call in the middle of the night asking:
"We have an unexpected baby boy; do
you want him?" They said: "Of course."
My biological mother later found out
that my mother had never graduated
from college and that my father had
never graduated from high school. She
refused to sign the final adoption
papers. She only relented a few
months later when my parents
promised that I would someday go to
college.
And 17 years later I did go to college.
But I naively chose a college that was
almost as expensive as Stanford, and
all of my working-class parents' savings
were being spent on my college tuition.
After six months, I couldn't see the
value in it. I had no idea what I wanted
to do with my life and no idea how
college was going to help me figure it
out. And here I was spending all of the
money my parents had saved their
entire life. So I decided to drop out and
trust that it would all work out OK. It
was pretty scary at the time, but
looking back it was one of the best
decisions I ever made. The minute I
dropped out I could stop taking the
required classes that didn't interest
me, and begin dropping in on the ones
that looked interesting.
It wasn't all romantic. I didn't have a
dorm room, so I slept on the floor in
friends' rooms, I returned coke bottles
for the 5¢ deposits to buy food with,
and I would walk the 7 miles across
town every Sunday night to get one
good meal a week at the Hare Krishna
temple. I loved it. And much of what I
stumbled into by following my curiosity
and intuition turned out to be priceless
later on. Let me give you one example:
Reed College at that time offered
perhaps the best calligraphy
instruction in the country. Throughout
the campus every poster, every label
on every drawer, was beautifully hand
calligraphed. Because I had dropped
out and didn't have to take the normal
classes, I decided to take a calligraphy
class to learn how to do this. I learned
about serif and san serif typefaces,
about varying the amount of space
between different letter combinations,
about what makes great typography
great. It was beautiful, historical,
artistically subtle in a way that science
can't capture, and I found it
fascinating.
None of this had even a hope of any
practical application in my life. But ten
years later, when we were designing
the first Macintosh computer, it all
came back to me. And we designed it
all into the Mac. It was the first
computer with beautiful typography. If
I had never dropped in on that single
course in college, the Mac would have
never had multiple typefaces or
proportionally spaced fonts. And since
Windows just copied the Mac, it's likely
that no personal computer would have
them. If I had never dropped out, I
would have never dropped in on this
calligraphy class, and personal
computers might not have the
wonderful typography that they do. Of
course it was impossible to connect
the dots looking forward when I was in
college. But it was very, very clear
looking backwards ten years later.
Again, you can't connect the dots
looking forward; you can only connect
them looking backwards. So you have
to trust that the dots will somehow
connect in your future. You have to
trust in something — your gut, destiny,
life, karma, whatever. This approach
has never let me down, and it has
made all the difference in my life.
My second story is about love and loss.
I was lucky — I found what I loved to
do early in life. Woz and I started Apple
in my parents garage when I was 20.
We worked hard, and in 10 years Apple
had grown from just the two of us in a
garage into a $2 billion company with
over 4000 employees. We had just
released our finest creation — the
Macintosh — a year earlier, and I had
just turned 30. And then I got fired.
How can you get fired from a company
you started? Well, as Apple grew we
hired someone who I thought was very
talented to run the company with me,
and for the first year or so things went
well. But then our visions of the future
began to diverge and eventually we
had a falling out. When we did, our
Board of Directors sided with him. So
at 30 I was out. And very publicly out.
What had been the focus of my entire
adult life was gone, and it was
devastating.
I really didn't know what to do for a
few months. I felt that I had let the
previous generation of entrepreneurs
down - that I had dropped the baton
as it was being passed to me. I met
with David Packard and Bob Noyce and
tried to apologize for screwing up so
badly. I was a very public failure, and I
even thought about running away
from the valley. But something slowly
began to dawn on me — I still loved
what I did. The turn of events at Apple
had not changed that one bit. I had
been rejected, but I was still in love.
And so I decided to start over.
I didn't see it then, but it turned out
that getting fired from Apple was the
best thing that could have ever
happened to me. The heaviness of
being successful was replaced by the
lightness of being a beginner again,
less sure about everything. It freed me
to enter one of the most creative
periods of my life.
During the next five years, I started a
company named NeXT, another
company named Pixar, and fell in love
with an amazing woman who would
become my wife. Pixar went on to
create the worlds first computer
animated feature film, Toy Story, and
is now the most successful animation
studio in the world. In a remarkable
turn of events, Apple bought NeXT, I
returned to Apple, and the technology
we developed at NeXT is at the heart of
Apple's current renaissance. And
Laurene and I have a wonderful family
together.
I'm pretty sure none of this would
have happened if I hadn't been fired
from Apple. It was awful tasting
medicine, but I guess the patient
needed it. Sometimes life hits you in
the head with a brick. Don't lose faith.
I'm convinced that the only thing that
kept me going was that I loved what I
did. You've got to find what you love.
And that is as true for your work as it is
for your lovers. Your work is going to
fill a large part of your life, and the only
way to be truly satisfied is to do what
you believe is great work. And the only
way to do great work is to love what
you do. If you haven't found it yet,
keep looking. Don't settle. As with all
matters of the heart, you'll know when
you find it. And, like any great
relationship, it just gets better and
better as the years roll on. So keep
looking until you find it. Don't settle.
My third story is about death.
When I was 17, I read a quote that
went something like: "If you live each
day as if it was your last, someday
you'll most certainly be right." It made
an impression on me, and since then,
for the past 33 years, I have looked in
the mirror every morning and asked
myself: "If today were the last day of
my life, would I want to do what I am
about to do today?" And whenever the
answer has been "No" for too many
days in a row, I know I need to change
something.
Remembering that I'll be dead soon is
the most important tool I've ever
encountered to help me make the big
choices in life. Because almost
everything — all external expectations,
all pride, all fear of embarrassment or
failure - these things just fall away in
the face of death, leaving only what is
truly important. Remembering that you
are going to die is the best way I know
to avoid the trap of thinking you have
something to lose. You are already
naked. There is no reason not to follow
your heart.
About a year ago I was diagnosed with
cancer. I had a scan at 7:30 in the
morning, and it clearly showed a
tumor on my pancreas. I didn't even
know what a pancreas was. The
doctors told me this was almost
certainly a type of cancer that is
incurable, and that I should expect to
live no longer than three to six
months. My doctor advised me to go
home and get my affairs in order,
which is doctor's code for prepare to
die. It means to try to tell your kids
everything you thought you'd have the
next 10 years to tell them in just a few
months. It means to make sure
everything is buttoned up so that it will
be as easy as possible for your family.
It means to say your goodbyes.
I lived with that diagnosis all day. Later
that evening I had a biopsy, where they
stuck an endoscope down my throat,
through my stomach and into my
intestines, put a needle into my
pancreas and got a few cells from the
tumor. I was sedated, but my wife,
who was there, told me that when they
viewed the cells under a microscope
the doctors started crying because it
turned out to be a very rare form of
pancreatic cancer that is curable with
surgery. I had the surgery and I'm fine
now.
This was the closest I've been to facing
death, and I hope it's the closest I get
for a few more decades. Having lived
through it, I can now say this to you
with a bit more certainty than when
death was a useful but purely
intellectual concept:
No one wants to die. Even people who
want to go to heaven don't want to die
to get there. And yet death is the
destination we all share. No one has
ever escaped it. And that is as it should
be, because Death is very likely the
single best invention of Life. It is Life's
change agent. It clears out the old to
make way for the new. Right now the
new is you, but someday not too long
from now, you will gradually become
the old and be cleared away. Sorry to
be so dramatic, but it is quite true.
Your time is limited, so don't waste it
living someone else's life. Don't be
trapped by dogma — which is living
with the results of other people's
thinking. Don't let the noise of others'
opinions drown out your own inner
voice. And most important, have the
courage to follow your heart and
intuition. They somehow already know
what you truly want to become.
Everything else is secondary.
When I was young, there was an
amazing publication called The Whole
Earth Catalog, which was one of the
bibles of my generation. It was created
by a fellow named Stewart Brand not
far from here in Menlo Park, and he
brought it to life with his poetic touch.
This was in the late 1960's, before
personal computers and desktop
publishing, so it was all made with
typewriters, scissors, and polaroid
cameras. It was sort of like Google in
paperback form, 35 years before
Google came along: it was idealistic,
and overflowing with neat tools and
great notions.
Stewart and his team put out several
issues of The Whole Earth Catalog,
and then when it had run its course,
they put out a final issue. It was the
mid-1970s, and I was your age. On the
back cover of their final issue was a
photograph of an early morning
country road, the kind you might find
yourself hitchhiking on if you were so
adventurous. Beneath it were the
words: "Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish." It
was their farewell message as they
signed off. Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish.
And I have always wished that for
myself. And now, as you graduate to
begin anew, I wish that for you.
Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish.
Thank you all very much.
Steve Jobs 1955 - 2011